Waste or garbage is the term clearly and distinctly describes the term of potentially unwanted substances, which cannot be used by a human. Every minute we are using some substances and at the same time producing waste substances out of it. Therefore, the production of waste substances cannot be terminated but it needs to be disposed of in such a way that it will not pose the health risk for human beings and animals.
Among this medical waste are of great importance because of the diversity in nature. These waste substances are with a wide range of potentially dangerous substances and improper maintaining can cause a serious hazard to the health.
The medical waste substances can be classified into various classes according to the following classification. They are
Class A – Non-hazardous waste (food remains of all units of health facilities, furniture waste, paper waste and so on).
Class B – Dangerous (risky) waste (potentially infectious waste materials and tools contaminated with secretions of human blood, organic operating and pathological waste, and so on).
Class C – Extremely hazardous waste (materials in contact with patients with particularly dangerous infections, the waste substance from TB hospitals and so on).
Class D – Industrial waste products (expired medicines and disinfectants, waste from medicinal and diagnostic products, mercury-containing objects, instruments and equipment, and so).
Class E – Radioactive waste (all kinds of wastes containing radioactive components).
The importance of the medical waste management is shown by the report published by WHO in 2000 stating that the following infections occurred due to the improper management of medical waste. The statistics below shows the different infections due to the mismanagement of medical waste. The infections occurred in such way are
- 21 million people – hepatitis B (HBV) (32% of all new infections);
- 2 million people – hepatitis C (HCV) (40% of all new infections); and
- At least 260,000 people – HIV (5% of all new infections).
Most of the medical waste management companies are available in all part of the world. They are specialized in the management of different types of medical waste substances. However, the question is how these medical waste management companies sort out a way of disposing of each type of waste substances. The main criteria for choosing a method of disposal and related equipment can be:
- Qualitative composition of the waste and its quantity;
- The safety and environmental friendliness of the method;
- Maximum reduction of waste volume output and full disinfection;
- The absolute impossibility of re-use of components of recyclable waste after processing;
- The possibility of installation of medical waste management directly to the health facility with minimal preparatory work;
- The amount of funds that are expected to be spent on the purchase of equipment and the level of the planned initial and subsequent operating costs;
- The required level of training of staff.
As a conclusion, the medical waste management companies make medical waste management simple. This is clearly shown by the decrease in the diseases, which is caused by the medical waste substances.